Prince L. S.Golitsyn – the founder of Russian industrial winemaking
Prince L. S.Golitsyn and Specific manors of the Imperial surname
Lev Sergeevich Golitsyn, the most powerful a figure in the Russian winemaking, appeared both among wine makers, and in Crimea quite unexpectedly, literally words – happy-go-lucky. Round its talented, vigorous and inconsistent person legends and dithyrambs, gossips and inventions will always crowd; admiration, bewilderment, envy …
In it of section – the New World is not mentioned it separately yet. And here Specific manors is both material resources, and experts with which help (and sometimes and overcoming which resistance) the prince of h.p. Golitsyn has created Russian industrial winemaking and not only in Crimea, but with the Crimean wines for the first time having achieved a world recognition. Their joint creation is, first of all, " ¦рёёрэфЁр", and then and Caucasian "+сЁрѕ -¦Ёёю" and manors in Kahetii.
Why Golitsyn's the most important and most simple thought what each area should have the type of wine, in Crimea and has not received an embodiment? Moreover, to us in a heritage it has left imitation wines of Champagne, and not so world glory of primordial wines of Crimea.
In 2000 to year the Moscow company “Legend of Crimea” has carried out the book edition “Prince L.S.Golitsyn. The outstanding Russian wine maker”, authors N.K.Laman and A.N.Borisova. This laborious research work is good not only the completeness, documentation, a thorough selection of responses of contemporaries, L.S.Golitsyna's author's works and its personal letters. All it is made without imposing of estimations, without labels. Really, considerable part of problems and problems, disputes round which Lev Sergeeevich kindled fire of the soul, all as are sharp and today.
Whether It is necessary to imitate the best European marks? Whether it is possible to use sugar and dyes for wine reduction in price? Whether it is possible to use the names which have developed in other countries?
Prince Golitsyn has come to winemaking casually, but such aristocrat and such idealist could receive a title of "King Ekspertov" only. Only it could spend three huge fortunes to create a New World and to collect a collection of wines, on the luxury and the scientific value, till now not having equal in the world.
The Sort of princes of Golitsynyh occurs from the Grand duke of Lithuanian Gedemina (XIV century) and intertwines with the noble families of Russia, Poland and other countries. It is said that Lev Sergeevich could tell without ceremony to Nikolay II something like: “our Sort, generally, ancient Romanovs, well it is fine, reign …”
Anyway, the whole gallery of the nice ancestors creating the Russian empire, always invisibly demanded and from Lva Sergeevicha, till the end of days of the collegiate registrar having a small rank, a sight at destiny of Russia as on the private affair. Golitsyny served as a support to Dmitry Donskomu, Vasily III, Ivan Groznomu, and the first emperor Peter the Great was brought up by Boris Alekseevich Golitsyn.
The Arms of princes of Golitsynyh which and now place on wine labels, have in the top half of board the image of the horseman skipping on a white game, with the lifted sabre – a sign on an origin from Gedemina. In Belarus this heraldic image is called "Pursuit" and is a national relic. The first Lithuanian princes were orthodox, from them there is a readout of the Belarus statehood. For modern Lithuania this horseman – a State Emblem part.
In the right bottom department of a board on the arms of Golitsynyh the arms of Novgorod are repeated: two black bears protect a throne with a sceptre and a cross, and in left bottom – against ravnokonechnogo a cross the Russian State Emblem is shown.
In 1408 great-great-grandson Gedemina has become related with Alexander Nevskogo's descendants – from here the Novgorod arms on a board. And as a whole all parts of a board topped with a princely crown, symbolise sort merits in creation and empire protection.
The inscription on Latin “Recta et ultra” (Directly forward) was the Motto of the family arms, but Lev Sergeevich has thought up the own: “Vir est Vis” (the Husband is force), and with this motto the arms were represented on its wine vaults and labels of wines. For house service, however, it has ordered the arms with the former patrimonial motto. Such division quite corresponds modern patent to the right, allocating the trade mark of the Lion of Golitsyn from a patrimonial sign on all princes of Golitsynyh in general.
Father Lva Sergeevicha was soul of the Petersburg society, often met A.S.Pushkin. And in a plot of well-known "Queen of spades" the history about Sergey Golitsyn Natalia Petrovne's grandmother has laid down.
However, Lev Sergeevich has been long isolated from Russian culture, than it is possible to explain its fanatical patriotism in an old age. Only in 19 years it began to take lessons of Russian for receipt in the Moscow university, but till the end of days spoke with strong accent, and wrote only in French. Habitual for us on portraits rustic armjak and the mutton cap only compensated shortage of Russian in young years. In a family it communicated usually in French. In general its Russian, and it is frequent also obscene expressions sounded among aristocrats, for example in the Moscow English club is more often.
He Was born on August, 12th (24), 1845 in Poland, in family lock Radzivillov from which sort there was his mother the countess Ezersky. Mother was the Catholic, three her daughters were brought up in a Catholicism, and three sons in Orthodoxy. House education of the Lion of Golitsyn has given it free possession Polish and French, quite good – German, and then he studied in Belgium, it is probable in private board. Documents on results of this study has not remained.
In 1862 L.Golitsyn has ended Sorbonnu (a college of the Parisian university) with a scientific degree of the bachelor of the right. In 1864 already in Petersburg it has arrived on service in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs and in 3 years under own application “is dismissed from service” in a rank of the collegiate registrar – something like the present younger expert.
In the Autumn of 1867 arrives in the Moscow university for the means, having passed without attending lectures of examinations in III th grammar school. Estimations reflect more likely some unbalance of character, than level of knowledge: only mathematics perfectly well, but Latin, French, German, history and geography – on satisfactory, but Russian and physics – it is good.
Its companion on N.V.Davidov's study has left such memoirs: “he Was engaged in parts, hard drinking … and working day and night, and there suddenly absolutely disappeared from Moscow, was engaged in the material affairs, went abroad …
Examinations were held by it at university always successfully …, but I am not quite assured that its answers precisely coincided with questions … ”.
It is described as typical such "incident" at examination at professor Yurkevich: “having bought the ticket, Golitsyn has started to answer, developing before the professor on the special adverb and not especially clearly any position, it is probable not without entering into it of its personal sights. Yurkevich … tried two … to return time it to a ticket being, but Golitsyn has already brought …
At last Yurkevich has jumped, has begun to knock on a table and, having turned pale for excitement, declared to Golitsyn that it stops examination and puts to it unit as he knows nothing and bears any confusion. Golitsyn has grown furious …, has knocked a fist on a table so that the inkwell standing on it has turned over and has filled in cloth and papers, has begun to roar on the professor: “you do not dare with me so to speak, all right to me to listen”.
Jurkovich was absolutely tiny little man …, and Golitsyn of the big growth, broad-shouldered, with kupnymi features, the big beard and with a long head of hear, and a voice at it was thunderous. Yurkevich has become puzzled, has trembled and has quickly disappeared from an audience.
This History has come to an end mutual apologies … and re-examination … ”
On a third year Golitsyn has received a gold medal for the composition “About destinies of national meetings in Rome on tribam”. It was the best student of the professor of the Roman right N.I.Krylov and during study has published at own expense some books with its lectures.
On June, 14th, 1871 it has received the Certificate of the Moscow university with the statement in degree of the Candidate of the right. And on August, 6th it has illegitimate daughter Sofia. This history is not willingly shined with biographers of the prince, but it has given up as a bad job its preparation for a professorial rank in the Moscow State University and has resulted it in a New World and in winemaking.
The small manor on the bank of Oka in the Murom district of the Vladimir province was the Usual place of its serious scientific occupations since 1867. Acquaintance to a local society has ended with a torrid love affair with the spouse of the Leader of district nobility Hope Zasetsky (the daughter of the town governor of Kerch of prince Zaharija Herheulidzeva).
Any time scandal was not beyond, though the Hope accompanied Golitsyn in 1873-74 during its training at universities of Leipzig and Goettingen (Germany). The history has filtered into newspapers so S.A.Muromtsev's Golitsyn's companion (subsequently the professor of the Moscow State University, the party leader of cadets and the chairman of 1st State Duma) even has written and has published in Leipzig the whole book about the hostility reasons between Zasetsky and Golitsyn, having managed completely to hide true. During this period Golitsyn already replaces Zasetsky on a post of the Leader of nobility.
Though magisterskuju Golitsyn has successfully protected the dissertation, professorial career is not so accessible. Daughter Sofia was brought up at the aunt knjazi in the Vladimir province, and the Hope which has born in 1876 – at mother in Warsaw. Only in 1890 the special imperial decree it is authorised “to two pupils of Prince Lva Sergeevicha …, to Sofia and Hope to accept a surname of Golitsynyh”.
Half of manor a New World belonged to Hope Zasetsky, and the second to her brother. In 1878 of h.p. Golitsyn has redeemed second half and was engaged in winemaking.
However, employment by something never suited it with one. In its 1877 select a member-correspondent of the Imperial Moscow archaeological society for opening and the description of parking of the Stone Age in a river basin of Oka. In its different years select the Honourable world judge and to vowels of a thought and meetings in Murom, Vladimir, Moscow, Feodosiya.
Very difficult shortly to write about Golitsyn's life. The impression such that some persons in the different ends of globe passionately and recklessly is conducted at once by scientific researches, political disputes, get on yellow press and society column pages, buy up antiquarian treasures and rare wines, study manufactures and trade and interfere with industry state regulation.
In 1889 emperor Alexander III has suggested Golitsyn to head all vinogradarskie and vinodelcheskie the economy belonging imperial and grand-ducal families. It is necessary to notice shortly that Romanovs at all were not "parasites" on a body of certain "working people". All splendour of a court yard and burden of diplomatic receptions were born on itself by Specific department, being engaged in the most profitable and progressive branches of agriculture and manufacture. Empresses who occurred from Denmark and Germany, operated exemplary dairy farms, well and the winemaking since Charles the Great was considered as the most worthy for monarchs business.
Golitsyn has accepted the Offer of the emperor only in 1891. Than it could support the authority of the aristocrat equal and several countries close by birth to ruling dynasties of Europe?
He owned already vineyards in a New World, villages Tokluk and Goats (a present Solar Valley), on caucasus and in Stavropol Territory. Manors continuously extended that improved also skilled base: Kutlak (with. Cheerful, Sudaksky r-n), the Sudaksky valley, Gurzuf, vicinities of Feodosiya. Still it is necessary to carry possession of its friend of prince Gorchakova to it in Arhaderesse and the husband of his oldest daughter of prince Peter Trubetskogo who has become in 1890th years by the largest supplier of materials for dining rooms and sparkling wines (a manor Cossack in the Kherson province and Dolmatovo in Dneprovsky district). Golitsyn has already received gold medals for white and red wines, and also for champagne at exhibitions in Moscow, Yalta, Luizville and the Nju-anatto tree (USA), Kharkov, Simferopol. In 1889 in Paris the gold medal has been hors concours received for “sparkling wines”.
Golitsyn has already affirmed as the world and as "King Ekspertov": the most notable, the richest (anyway – the most generous), with irreproachable ability to distinguish grapes grades simply on leaves, and wines – to see high-quality features in any difficult blends. On nuances of taste of wines he clearly guessed features of soils and prominent features of year – rainy or solar. Also was able it distinctly and demonstratively to describe! Russian of its lectures and articles is faultless. Results of long-term experiences have been stated in the detailed report to Specific department.
What represented then itself this most monarchical winemaking?
By 1889 Destinies buy up some manors with vineyards and cellars: "Livadija" (at count Pototsky), "Massandra" and "Ah-danil" (at M.S.Vorontsova's successors), and also vinotorgovuju firm S.M. Vorontsova with representations in Petersburg, Moscow, Kharkov, Odessa, Simferopol and other cities.
We already wrote about high-quality mess of vineyards of Crimea of noble family. The first that it was possible to make to Golitsyn and experts of Destinies – to establish real names of grades and to pick up for each site their best combination. It had been lifted at once productivity and high-quality quality of wines is improved; the areas of vineyards continuously extended.
Already knowing by the experiences in steppe, foothill and coastal zones that on Southern coast interesting thin wines can be received only fastening and endurance, it actually conceives glory of sweet wines "Massandry" in old cellars of separate manors.
In 1894 the known hydrogeologist Golovkinsky selects a place for the main cellar. The project was developed by architect V.N.Chagin. In 1898 building under the direction of engineer A.I.Didriha has been finished. Considering that it were the first cellars of tunnel type similar only to the best economy of France, it is possible to recognise Golitsyn's personal participation solving. Only it could convince the emperor to spend 1 million 100 thousand roubles. A result: 7 tunnels, dispersing in radiuses, in the general extent in 2 versts, capacity of all bochek to 80 thousand buckets (1 ведро=12,4 and 1 million bottles.
In 1895 reorganisation of cellars in the Pike perch where at successors of Large vineyards also are got is finished also. The French wine maker begins there experiences on manufacture of champagne which then became a basis for industrial production in Abrau Djurso on caucasus.
During this period Golitsyn leaves a New World on N.Trubetskogo's care and is engaged in winemaking and wine growing in all Destinies: on caucasus, in Kahetii, in Tiflise, in Moscow. It successfully represents specific winemaking at exhibitions, for example in Bordeaux in 1895 receives Gran At.
But by 1898 of the contradiction between it and officials of Destinies reach such heat that it leaves service and in a pointed manner refuses compensation. Hundred thousand roubles it translates in the Agriculture Ministry that from percent of this sum of times in four or five years some awards for the best wines, table grapes and scientific works stood out. The award bore a name of dead Alexander III which has replaced by then Nikolay II.
The Reference to the new monarch is marked only in 1903 when Golits yn submits on the highest name a bill about struggle against falsification of wines. Shortly before it Odessa vinodelchesky congress recognised as majority of votes that wines with addition of treacle, an elder, tar, sveklovichnogo sugar, potato spirit and other substances harmless to health should address in trade under the same names as well as natural wines. V.E.Tairov expressing commercial interests of wine makers of Besarabii (now Moldova and the Odessa area) was the ideologist of food additives and dyes. The areas and productivity of vineyards there were huge, but wines turned out not interesting neither on colour, nor to taste. Long and difficult work on quality of wine interested nobody, including imperial wine makers.
In general, only from performances of 1900th years it is possible to guess the reasons of rupture of Golitsyn with Specific department:
- Commercial successes against huge expenses were at all so are notable, as awards at exhibitions. In a New World it has spent the condition, Hopes Zasetsky and a condition of the wife of countess Orlovoj-Denisovoj. Losses of Destinies to judge difficultly, but it is clear that Golitsyn aspired not to profit, and to glory of the Russian winemaking;
- Its statements concerning the invited foreign experts were too sharp (though, generally fair);
- Specific department for itself considered as the main thing reception of high incomes, including from educational institutions of type of Nikitsky (Magarachsky) school of gardening and wine growing and from pilot farms, and not so scientific results;
- The huge Russian market allowed to refuse rivalry with France and other countries, and the fashion and various requirements of imperial kitchen demanded the big assortment of wines and first of all within the limits of already settled well-known foreign types.
The Pupil and Golitsyn's associate wine maker M.A.Hovrenko at all did not name the fortified wines ports. But to the XX-th century beginning all winemaking was already captivated by foreign marks. Any response has not found Golitsyn's performance at congress in Odessa: “Us interests to give foreign names to our wines – a sherry, madera, port, a horn. We try not to create wine types but only to imitate another, and, even imitating, we do not give ourselves the report in that. That we do. We imitate rouble port which port actually not is; we imitate cheap lafitu which not is lafit, and we imitate ikemu which even has no main rod.
… Misters vinotorgovtsy Petersburg have gathered to discuss the project of the Moscow committee, and from 13 persons 11 Germans have acted. “Falsification is not present in Russia, to court of those who he it speaks”.
… Crisis, according to these dealers, was created because vineyards get divorced. To be logical, it is necessary to cut down all vineyards and let foreign wine under false names ”walks across Russia. Golitsyn considered correct only simple double names from names of a grade of grapes and district.
Though Golitsyn also has appeared in виноторговцев environment in minority, its merits before the Russian winemaking in September, 1903 have been noted in honour of the 25 anniversary of its activity in a New World. The congratulatory telegramme from Nikolay II, a welcoming speech from the representative Udelov V. N. Martynova have planned some rapprochement.
By 1912 Golitsyn has achieved rescue from bankruptcy of the child – a New World, having transferred a part of vineyards and a part of cellars in gift to Nikolay II. This "gift" has encountered considerable resistance of officials as at the expense of treasury Golitsyn has still constructed then in a New World a waterpipe (of the next valley, difficult enough and zatratnyj), has cleared the way from the Pike perch, and also has considerably improved conditions for the collection, keeping long time over it a complete control.
Eventually the basic part of rare wines has appeared in Massandre, and unique works of art in days of Civil war have disappeared.
Except for a sparkling wine “Original Krymskoje”, Crimea and has not given to the world of any commercially significant type of wine. But in imitation the best world types nevertheless has achieved recognised heights.
Opposition and cooperation, disputes and reciprocal concessions of experts of Specific department and Golitsyn's Lion define the main lines of elite Crimean winemaking till now. And occurrence of new wines already in the third millenium – both original local, and repeating foreign types – does not put an end in this dialogue. Well and a point in section puts
“the Seventh sky of prince Golitsyn”
Branded sweet wine from grades of Kokur white, the Muscat white, the Muscat pink, repeating on high-quality structure legendary “the Seventh sky”, prepared by prince Golitsyn in 1880. Colour from golden to amber with an easy pink modulation. A bouquet bright difficult with tones of honey, a peach and a quince. Taste full, harmonious with poslevkusiem a quince and mushmuly. Spirit of 16%, sugar of 18%. It is possible to recommend to refined grades of creamy ice-cream and exotic fruit.
In general the name is not characteristic for Golitsyn's wines, and records about its structure it has not left. Among wine makers for a long time already goes bajka that it has simply merged in a keg results of experiences with the most widespread, but too plain Crimean grade of Kokur. Well and basement workers finished it the dinner and having been surprised unusual difficult, really multilayered, to taste of this wine, have christened its Seventh sky. Under such name the prince also has put some bottles in a collection. Already in the middle of the XX-th century the main wine maker Massandry professor A.A.Egor has left the decoding of structure of a blend. As a result of 4 years of experiments (1996-1999) talented wine maker of state farm "Malorechensky" S.V. Zadorozhnyj has fulfilled difficult technology – besides multistage – in vintage, its initial processing on grades and kupazhirovanija. Here such monument was received by prince Lev Sergeevich Golitsyn already from the Soviet wine makers.